شبکه خبری آموزشی گیاهان دارویی کتاب کاربردی “بیوشیمی، اکولوژی و کاربردهای دارویی آلکالوئیدها” را به شما مخاطبین گرامی تقدیم می نماید. حجم فایل این کتاب در حدود ۱۲ مگابایت می باشد.

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Chapter 1
Introduction
Margaret F. Roberts and Michael Wink
۱. Introduction
۲. Historical Importance of Alkaloids
۳. Biochemistry
۳.۱. Classification of Alkaloids
۳.۲. Biogenetic Grouping of Alkaloids
۳.۳. Occurrence and Distribution
۴. Ecology
۵. Pharmacological Activities
References.
Part I. Historical and Cultural Perspectives
Chapter 2
A Short History of Alkaloids
Michael Wink
۱. Introduction
۲. Alkaloids and Alkaloid-Producing Plants in Antiquity
۲.۱. Use of Alkaloid-Producing Plants in Early Medicine
۲.۲. Role of Alkaloids and Alkaloidal Plants for “Murder” and “Magic”
۳. Alkaloidal Plants and Fungi Playing an Important Role in the History of Mankind
۳.۱. Aconitum napellus (Family Ranunculacaea)
۳.۲. Amanita muscaria (Family Amanitaceae)
۳.۳. Areca catechu (Family Arecaceae)
۳.۴. Aristolochia clematitis (Family Aristolochiaceae)
۳.۵. Atropa belladonna (Family Solanaceae)
۳.۶. Banisteriopsis caapa, B. inebrians (Family Malpighiaceae)
۳.۷. Buxus sempervirens (Family Buxaceae)
۳.۸. Camellia sinensis (Family Theaceae)
۳.۹. Chelidonium majus (Family Papaveraceae)
۳.۱۰. Claviceps purpurea (Family Hypocreaceae)
۳.۱۱. Colchicum autumnale (Family Liliaceae)
۳.۱۲. Conium maculatum (Family Umbelliferae)
۳.۱۳. Datura metel (Family Solanaceae)
۳.۱۴. Delphinium consolida (Family Ranunculaceae)
۳.۱۵. Dictamnus albus (Family Rutaceae)
۳.۱۶. Ephedrafragilis (Family Ephedraceae)
۳.۱۷. Erythroxylum coca (Family Erythroxylaceae)
۳.۱۸. Hyoscyamus niger, H. albus, H. muticus (Family Solanaceae)
۳.۱۹. Lophophora williamsii (Family Cactaceae)
۳.۲۰. Lupinus albus (Family Leguminosae)
۳.۲۱. Lycopodium clavatum, L annotinum (Family Lycopodiaceae)
۳.۲۲. Mandragora officinarum, M. autumnalis (Family Solanaceae)
۳.۲۳. Nicotiana tabacum (Family Solanaceae)
۳.۲۴. Papaver somniferum (Family Papaveraceae)
۳.۲۵. Peganum harmala (Family Zygophyllaceae)
۳.۲۶. Physostigma venenosum (Family Leguminosae)
۳.۲۷. Psilocybe mexicana (Family Agaricaceae)
۳.۲۸. Punica granatum (Family Punicaceae)
۳.۲۹. Ruta graveolens (Family Rutaceae)
۳.۳۰. Solanum dulcamara (Family Solanaceae)
۳.۳۱. Taxus baccata (Family Taxaceae)
۳.۳۲. Turbina corymbosa (Family Convolvulaceae)
۳.۳۳. Veratrum album (Family Liliaceae)
References
Major Reviews
Key References
Chapter 3
Alkaloids in Arrow Poisons
H. D. Neuwinger
۱. Introduction
۲. African Arrow Poisons
۲.۱. Poisoned Weapons
۲.۲. Poison Preparation
۲.۳. Plant Sources and Their Active Principles
۳. South American Arrow Poisons
۳.۱. Classification and Composition
۳.۲. Chemistry
۳.۳. Pharmacology, Toxicology
۳.۴. Medicinal Use
۳.۵. Other Plant Arrow Poisons
۴. Asian Arrow Poisons
۴.۱. Indonesia, Borneo, Philippines, Hainan, Vietnam, Cambodia
۴.۲. Burma. Thailand, Malaysia
Appendix: Composition of African Arrow Poisons
References
General References
Specific References
Part II. Biochemistry
Chapter 4
Chemical Taxonomy of Alkaloids
Peter G. Waterman
۱. Introduction
۲. What Is an Alkaloid?
۲.۱. A Unifying Theme in the Biosynthesis of True Alkaloids
۳. The Impact of Alkaloids on Taxonomy
۳.۱. Alkaloids Originating from Tyrosine (and Phenylalanine), UsualIy through Dopa
۳.۲. Indole-seco-Loganin-Derived Alkaloids
۳.۳. Anthranilic Acid as an Alkaloid Substrate
۳.۴. Alkaloids from Ornithine and Lysine
۳.۵. Pseudoalkaloids
۴. Concluding Comments
References
General Reviews
Key References
Chapter 5
Enzymology of Alkaloid Biosynthesis
Margaret F. Roberts
I. Introduction
۲. Biosynthesis of Acetate-Derived Simple Piperidine Alkaloids
۳. Biosynthesis of Quinolizidine Alkaloids
۴. Biosynthesis of Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloids
۴.۱. The Formation of (S)-Norcoclaurine
۴.۲. Biosynthesis of the Tetrahydroberberine Alkaloids
۴.۳. The Route to the Protopine and Benzophenanthridine Alkaloids
۴.۴. Biosynthesis of the Morphinan Alkaloids
۵. Indole Alkaloid Biosynthesis
۵.۱. Formation of (S)-Strictosidine
۵.۲. Deglucosylation of Strictosidine
۵.۳. Formation of Corynanthe-Type Alkaloids
۵.۴. The Formation of Sarpagan-Type Alkaloids
۵.۵. Formation of Aspidosperma-Type Alkaloids
۵.۶. Biosynthesis of Dimeric Indole Alkaloids
۶. Ergot Alkaloid Biosynthesis
۷. Cyclopenin-Viridicatin Alkaloid Biosynthesis
۸. Acridone Alkaloid Biosynthesis
۹. Conclusions
References
General Reviews
Key References
Chapter 6
Genes in Alkaloid Metabolism
Kazuki Saito and Isamu Murakoshi
۱. Introduction
۲. Isolation of Genes
۳. Regulation
۴. Expression of Recombinant Enzymes in Heterologous Systems
۴.۱. Expression in Microorganisms
۴.۲. Expression in Transgenic Plants and Other Higher Organisms
۵. Molecular Evolution
۶. Prospects
References
General Reviews
Key References
Chapter 7
Production of Alkaloids in Plant Cell Culture
Margaret F. Roberts
I. Introduction
۲. Cell Technology
۲.۱. Cell Culture
۲.۲. Establishment of Specific Cell Lines
۲.۳. Growth and Product Accumulation
۲.۴. Development of Cultures with Improved Alkaloid Yield
۲.۵. Immobilization of Plant Cells and Enzymes
۲.۶. Organ Culture
۲.۷. Plant Propagation by Tissue Culture Techniques
۲.۸. Cell Cultures for the Production of Alkaloids
۲.۹. Lysine-Derived Quinolizidine Alkaloids
۲.۱۰. Ornithine-Derived Alkaloids
۲.۱۱. Nicotinic Acid-Derived and Purine Alkaloids
۲.۱۲. Anthranilic Acid-Derived Alkaloids
۲.۱۳. Acetate-Derived Alkaloids
۳. Industrial Interest
۳.۱. The Problem of Cost-Effectiveness
۳.۲. The Problems Associated with Scale up
۳.۳. Areas of Potential Industrial Interest
۴. Summary
References
General Reviews
Key References
Chapter 8
The Biosynthesis of Alkaloids in Root Cultures
Richard J. Robins
۱. Introduction
۲. The Pyrrolidine Alkaloids
۲.۱. Regulation of the Pyrrolidine Alkaloid Pathway in Nicotiana
۲.۲. Studying the Pyrrolidine Alkaloid Pathway by Genetic Engineering
۳. The Tropane Alkaloids
۳.۱. The Biosynthetic Route to the Tropane Alkaloids
۳.۲. Regulation of the Tropane Alkaloid Pathway
in Datura, Hyoscyamus, and Atropa
۳.۳. Genetic Engineering of Tropane Alkaloid Biosynthesis
۴. The Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids
۴.۱. The Biosynthetic Route to the Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids
۴.۲. Regulation of the Biosynthetic Pathway
۵. Conclusions
References
General Reviews
Key References
Chapter 9
Induction of Alkaloid Biosynthesis and Accumulation in Plants and in Vuro Cultures in Response to Elicitation
U. Eilert
۱. Introduction
۲. Induction of Alkaloid Production by Climatic and Soil Conditions
in Field-Grown Plants
۲.۱. Induction by Heat Stress
۲.۲. Induction by Light
۳. Induction of Alkaloid Production in Vitro
۴. Induction by Wounding
۴.۱. Effects of Mechanical Wounding
۴.۲. Elicitor Induction
۵. Concluding Remarks
References
General Reviews
Key References
Chapter 10
Compartmentation of Alkaloid Synthesis, Transport, and Storage
Michael Wink and Margaret F. Roberts
I. Introduction
۲.۱. Sites and Compartmentation of Alkaloid Formation
۲.۲. Long-Distance Transport
۳. Alkaloid Storage
۳.۱. Vacuolar Sequestration of Alkaloids
۳.۲. Mechanisms Underlying Vacuolar Sequestration
۴. Turnover of Alkaloids
۵. Sequestration as an Integral Part of the Defense Concept of Plants
References
General Reviews
Special References
Part III. Ecology
Chapter 11
Chemical Ecology of Alkaloids
Michael Wink
۱. Introduction
۲. Function of Alkaloids
۳. Plant-Herbivore Interactions
۳.۱. Invertebrates
۳.۲. Vertebrate Herbivores
۴. Plant-Microbe Interactions
۵. Plant-Plant Interactions
۶. Ecological Relevance of Alkaloids
۶.۱. Are Alkaloid Concentrations in Plants Sufficiently High?
۶.۲. Occurrence of Alkaloids at the Right Site and Right Time
۶.۳. Evidence for Alkaloid-Mediated Fitness
۷. Conclusion
References
Major Reviews
Key References
Chapter 12
Modes of Action of Alkaloids
Michael Wink
۱. Introduction
۲. Molecular Targets of Alkaloids
۲.۱. Biomembranes
۲.۲. Signal Transduction at Biomembranes
۲.۳. Cytoskeleton
۲.۴. DNA/RNA
۲.۵. Protein Biosynthesis
۲.۶. Electron Chains
۲.۷. Modulation of Enzyme Activity through Alkaloids
۲.۸. Alkaloids Affecting More than One Target
۳. Targets at the Organ Level
۳.۱. Central Nervous System and Neuromuscular Junction
۳.۲. Inhibition of the Digestive Process
۳.۳. Modulation of Liver and Kidney Function
۳.۴. Disturbance of Reproduction
۳.۵. Blood and Circulatory System
۳.۶. Allergenic Effects
۴. Mechanisms of Allelochemical Activities in Antiviral, Antimicrobial, and Allelopathic Interactions
۵. Conclusions
References
Major Reviews
Key References
Chapter 13
Plant Parasites
F. R. Stermit;
۱. Introduction
۲. Specificity
۲.۱ Host Plant Specificity
۲.۲ Specificity of Alkaloid Uptake: Root Parasites
۲.۳ Specificity of Alkaloid Uptake: Stem Parasites
۳. Ecological Aspects of Alkaloid Transfer
References
General References
Specific References 335
Chapter 14
Allelopathy in Plants
J. V. Lovett and A. H. C. Boult
۱. Introduction
۲. Allelopathic Activity of the Alkaloids
۲.۱. Against Mircoorganisms
۲.۲. Against Higher Plants
۳. The Significance of Alkaloid-Mediated Allelopathy in Ecosystems
۳.۱. Criteria for Establishing Allelopathic Activity in Ecosystems
۳.۲. Soil Mediation
۳.۳. Other Interactions
۴. Conclusion
References
General Reviews
Specific References
Chapter 15
Alkaloids in Animals
J. C. Braekman, D. Daloze, and J. M. Pasteels
۱. Introduction
۲. Arthropods
۲.۱. Insecta
۲.۲. Arachnida
۲.۳. Myriapoda-Diplopoda
۳. Vertebrates
۳.۱. Amphibia
۳.۲. Other Vertebrates
۴. Marine Animals
۴.۱. Bryozoa (Ectoprocta or Moss Animals)
۴.۲. Tunicates (Ascidians)
۴.۳. Porifera
۵. Biosynthesis
References
General Reviews
Specialist References
Chapter 16
Ecological Significance of Alkaloids from Marine Invertebrates
Peter Proksch and Rainer Ebel
۱. Introduction
۲. Chemical Defense against Fouling and Spatial Competition
۳. Chemical Defense against Fish
۴. Induced Chemical Defense of the Sponge Verongia aerophoba
۵. Marine Alkaloids as Waterborne Signals in Inter- and Intraspecific Communication
۶. Origin of Alkaloids from Marine Invertebrates
۷. Chemical Defense in the Marine versus the Terrestrial Environment
References
General Reviews
Specific References
Part IV. Alkaloids in Medicine
Chapter 17
AntimicrobialJy Active Alkaloids
R. Verpoorte
۱. Introduction
۲. Indole Alkaloids
۲.۱. Terpenoid Indole Alkaloids
۲.۲. Other Indole Alkaloids
۳. Isoquinoline Alkaloids
۳.۱. Bisbenzylisoquinoline Alkaloids.
۳.۲. Aporphine Alkaloids
۳.۳. Benzophenanthridine Alkaloids
۳.۴. Protoberberine Alkaloids
۳.۵. Protopines
۳.۶. Miscellaneous Isoquinoline Alkaloids
۴. Steroidal Alkaloids
۵. Quinoline Alkaloids
۶. Acridone Alkaloids
۷. Terpenoid Alkaloids
۸. Piperidine Alkaloids
۹. Quinolizidine Alkaloids
۱۰. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids
۱۱. Miscellaneous
۱۲. Conclusion
References
General Reviews
Key References
Chapter 18
Utilization of Alkaloids in Modern Medicine
T. Schmeller and Michael Wink
۱. Introduction
Alkaloids Used in Modem Medicine
۲.۱. Aconitine
۲.۲. Ajmaline
۲.۳. Atropine
۲.۴. Berberine
۲.۵. Boldine
۲.۶. Caffeine
۲.۷. Cathine
۲.۸. Cocaine
۲.۹. Codeine
۲.۱۰. Colchicine
۲.۱۱. Emetine
۲.۱۲. Ephedrine
۲.۱۳. Ergometrine
۲.۱۴. Ergotamine
۲.۱۵. Eserine (= Physostigmine)
۲.۱۶. Galanthamine
۲.۱۷. Hydrastine
۲.۱۸. Hyoscine (= Scopolamine)
۲.۱۹. Hyoscyamine
۲.۲۰. Lobeline
۲.۲۱. Morphine
۲.۲۲. Narceine
۲.۲۳. Nicotine
۲.۲۴. Noscapine (= Narcotine)
۲.۲۵. Papaverine
۲.۲۶. Physostigmine (see Eserine)
۲.۲۷. Pilocarpine
۲.۲۸. Quinidine
۲.۲۹. Quinine
۲.۳۰. Raubasine (= Ajmalicine)
۲.۳۱. Rescinnamine
۲.۳۲. Reserpine
۲.۳۳. Sanguinarine
۲.۳۴. Scopolamine (see Hyoscine)
۲.۳۵. Sparteine
۲.۳۶. Strychnine
۲.۳۷. Taxol
۲.۳۸. Theobromine
۲.۳۹. Theophylline
۲.۴۰. Tubocurarine
۲.۴۱. Vinblastine
۲.۴۲. Vincamine
۲.۴۳. Vincristine
۲.۴۴. yohimbine
۳. Conclusions
References
Subject Index Including Orders, Families, and Common Names
Index of Alkaloids, Amines, and Other Molecules
Organism Index