شبکه خبری آموزشی گیاهان دارویی کتاب “شیمی و زیست شناسی ترکیبات فرار (The Chemistry and Biology of Volatiles)” را به شما مخاطبین گرامی تقدیم می نماید. این کتاب در سال ۲۰۱۰ میلادی منتشر شده و حاوی مطالب ارزنده ای در مورد بیوسنتز و انتشار ترکیبات فرار گیاهی، تجزیه شیمیایی ترکیبات فرار، فرمون ها، استفاده از ترکیبات فرار گیاهی در کنترل آفات، کاربرد ترکیبات فرار گیاهی در عطرسازی، بررسی تفاوت بین ترکیبات فرار طبیعی و موارد مشابه مصنوعی و سنتزی آنها و سایر مباحث کاربردی در این زمینه می باشد. حجم فایل این کتاب جهت دانلود در حدود ۱۳ مگابایت است.

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۱- Volatiles – An Interdisciplinary Approach

Introduction

Geraniol – A Typical Example

Conclusion

References

۲- Biosynthesis and Emission of Isoprene, Methylbutanol and Other Volatile Plant Isoprenoids

Introduction

Plant Isoprenoids

Two IPP-Yielding Pathways in Plants

Prenyl Chain Formation and Elongation

Compartmentation of Plant Isoprenoid Biosynthesis

The Enzyme Steps of the Plastidic DOXP/MEP Pathway of IPP Formation

Cross-Talk Between the Two IPP Biosynthesis Pathways

Biosynthesis and Emission of Volatile Isoprene at High Irradiance

Regulation of Isoprene Emission

Inhibition of Isoprene Biosynthesis

Fosmidomycin and -Ketoclomazone

Diuron

Inhibition of Carotenoid and Chlorophyll Biosynthesis by Fosmidomycin and -Ketoclomazone

Biosynthesis and Emission of Methylbutenol at High Irradiance

Source of Pyruvate for Isoprene and Methylbutenol Biosynthesis

Branching Point of DOXP/MEP Pathway with Other Metabolic Chloroplast Pathways

Is There a Physiological Function of Isoprene and MBO Emission?

Biosynthesis and Emission of Monoterpenes, Sesquiterpenes and Diterpenes

Monoterpenes

Diterpenes

Sesquiterpenes

Some General Remarks on the Regulation of Terpene Biosynthesis in Plants

Volatile Terpenoids as Aroma Compounds of Wine

Function of Terpenes in Plant Defence

Conclusion

Acknowledgements

References

۳- Analysis of the Plant Volatile Fraction

Introduction

Sample Preparation

‘Liquid’ Phase Sampling

Headspace Sampling

Headspace–Solid Phase Microextraction

In-Tube Sorptive Extraction

Headspace Sorptive Extraction

Static and Trapped Headspace

Solid-Phase Aroma Concentrate Extraction

Headspace Liquid-Phase Microextraction

Large Surface Area High Concentration Capacity Headspace Sampling

Analysis

Fast-GC and Fast-GC-qMS EO Analysis

Qualitative Analysis

Quantitative Analysis

Enantioselective GC

Multidimensional GC Techniques

Further Developments

Conclusion

Acknowledgements

References

۴- Plant Volatile Signalling: Multitrophic Interactions in the Headspace

Introduction

The Specificity and Complexity of Herbivore-Induced VOC Production

Plant Endogenous Wound Signalling

Herbivore-Derived Elicitors of VOC Emission

Ecological Consequences of VOC Emission

Within-Plant Defence Signalling

Herbivore-Induced VOC Emission as Part of a Metabolic Reconfiguration of the Plant

Herbivores Use VOCs to Select Host Plants

VOCs as Indirect Defences Against Herbivores

VOCs in Plant–Plant Interactions

Conclusion

Acknowledgements

References

۵- Pheromones in Chemical Communication

Introduction

Definition of Pheromones

Classification of Pheromones

History of Pheromone Research

Research Techniques in Pheromone Science

The Collecting of Pheromones

Bioassay-Guided Purification

Structure Determination and Synthesis

Field Bioassay

Structure Elucidation of the Male-Produced Aggregation Pheromone of the Stink BugEysarcoris lewisi – A Case Study

Structural Diversity Among Pheromones

Complexity of Multicomponent Pheromones

Stereochemistry and Pheromone Activity

Only a Single Enantiomer is Bioactive and its Opposite Enantiomer Does Not Inhibit the Response to the Active Isomer

Only One Enantiomer is Bioactive, and its Opposite Enantiomer Inhibits the Response to the Pheromone

Only One Enantiomer is Bioactive, and its Diastereomer Inhibits the Response to the Pheromone

The Natural Pheromone is a Single Enantiomer, and its Opposite Enantiomer or Diastereomer is Also Active

The Natural Pheromone is a Mixture of Enantiomers or Diastereomers, and Both of the Enantiomers, or All of the Diastereomers are Separately Active

Different Enantiomers or Diastereomers are Employed by Different Species

Both Enantiomers are Necessary for Bioactivity

One Enantiomer is More Active Than the Other, but an Enantiomeric or Diastereomeric Mixture is More Active Than the Enantiomer Alone

One Enantiomer is Active on Males, While the Other is Active on Females

Only themeso-Isomer is Active

Pheromones With Kairomonal Activities

Mammalian Pheromones

Invention of Pheromone Mimics

Conclusion

Acknowledgements

References

۶- Use of Volatiles in Pest Control

Introduction

Repellents (DEET, Neem, Essential Oils)

Volatile Synthetic Chemicals and Fumigants

Pheromones

Volatile Allelochemicals

Plant Volatiles and Behavioural Modification of Beneficial Insects

Concluding Comments

References

۷- Challenges in the Synthesis of Natural and Non-Natural Volatiles

Introduction – The Art of Organic Synthesis

Overcoming Challenges in the Small-Scale Synthesis of Natural Volatile Compounds

D,L-Caryophyllene ()

b-Vetivone ()

Overcoming Challenges in the Large-Scale Synthesis of Nature Identical and Non-Natural Molecules

(Z)–Hexenol

Citral

(–)-Menthol

Habanolide

Remaining Challenges in the Large-Scale Synthesis of Natural and Non-Natural Volatiles

Design and Synthesis of Novel Odorants and Potential Industrial Routes to a Natural Product

Cassis (Blackcurrant)

Patchouli

Musk

Sandalwood

Other Challenges

Conclusion

Acknowledgements

Dedication

References

۸- The Biosynthesis of Volatile Sulfur Flavour Compounds

Introduction: Flavours as Secondary Metabolites

Sulfur in Plant Biology

Sulfur Compounds as Flavour Volatiles

The Alk(en)yl Cysteine Sulfoxide Flavour Precursors

Biosynthesis of the Flavour Precursors ofAllium

The Biosynthesis ofAlliumFlavour Precursors via g-Glutamyl Peptides

The Biosynthesis ofAlliumFlavour Precursors via Cysteine Synthases

Formation of Volatiles from CSOs

S-Methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide

Release of theAlliumCSOs

TheAlliumFlavour Volatiles

The Enzyme Alliinase

The Enzyme Lachrymatory Factor Synthase

The Biological Roles of the Flavour Precursors

The Glucosinolate Flavour Precursors

GS and Their Biosynthetic Pathways

Release of Volatile GS Hydrolysis Products

The Biological Role of Glucosinolates

Application of Transgenic Technology to Applied Aspects of GS Biosynthesis

Volatile Sulfur Compounds from Other Plants

Complex Organic Sulfur Volatiles

Simple Sulfur Volatiles

Hydrogen Sulfide

Methanethiol

Conclusion

References

۹- Thermal Generation of Aroma-Active Volatiles in Food

Introduction

The Maillard Reaction

The Amadori Rearrangement

Deoxyosones

Retro-Aldolization

Formation of Aroma Compounds in the Later Stages of the Maillard Reaction

-Furfurylthiol

-Hydroxy-,-dimethyl-(H)-furanone

Alkyl and Alkenylpyrazines

-Acetyl–pyrroline

The Strecker Degradation

Caramelization

Thiamin Degradation

Ferulic Acid Degradation

Fat Oxidation

Conclusion

References

۱۰- Human Olfactory Perception

Introduction

Historical Perspective on Olfactory Perception

Human Olfactory Pathway

Functional Studies in Human Subjects

Functional Studies in Brain-Damaged Subjects

Single Odorants, Binary Mixtures and Complex Odour Objects

Olfactory Versus Trigeminal Odorant Identification

Orthonasal Versus Retronasal Odour Perception

Specific Anosmias

MHC-Correlated Odour Preferences in Human Subjects

Odour Deprivation and Odour Perception

Age-Related Decline in Olfactory Perception

New Neurons in Adult Brains

Epidemiological Studies of Human Olfaction

Active Sampling and Olfactory Perception

Human Olfactory Imagery

Top-Down Influences on Olfactory Perception

Reproductive State and Olfactory Sensitivity

Olfaction, Hunger and Satiety

Odour Perception Bias by Odour Names

Olfaction and Disease States

Prenatal and Postnatal Influences on Infant Odour/Flavour Preferences

Future Directions

Acknowledgements

References

۱۱- Perfumery – The Wizardry of Volatile Molecules

The Big Picture

Wizardry No : Full Holograms Create Real Emotions

Volatiles Need a Language Wizard

Wizardry No : The Perfumer in the Jungle of Volatiles to Create Emotions

Wizardry No : End Results Are Music to the Nose

References

۱۲- Microencapsulation Techniques for Food Flavour

Demands

Microencapsulation in the Food Industry

Techniques and Materials for Flavour Microencapsulation

Spray Drying

Extrusion

Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes

Helical Inclusion Complexes

Fluidized Bed Coating

Top Spray Fluidized Bed Coating

Bottom Spray System

Wurster System

Tangential Spray or Rotary Fluidized Bed Coating

Coacervation

Double or Multiple Emulsion with Freeze Drying

Co-Crystallization

Spray Chilling and Spray Cooling

Supercritical Fluids

Other Techniques

Conclusion and Future Trends

References

۱۳- Profragrances and Properfumes

Introduction

Release of Alcohols

Enzymatic Hydrolysis

Neighbouring-Group-Assisted, Non-Enzymatic Hydrolysis

Release of Carbonyl Derivatives

Oxidations

Reversible Systems

Retro ,-Additions

Profragrance and Properfume Strategies

Performance and Cost Efficiency

Stability

Conclusion

Acknowledgements

References

۱۴- Reactions of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere

Introduction

The Relative Importance of Anthropogenic Versus Biogenic VOC Emissions to Atmospheric Chemistry

Overview of BVOC Oxidation

The Types of Emitted BVOCs and General Roles in Atmospheric Chemistry

Gas Phase Oxidation of BVOCs

Gas Phase Chemistry of BVOCs in Urban and Suburban Airsheds

Gas Phase Chemistry Within and Above Forests

BVOC Emissions and SOA Formation

Conclusion

References

Index